Levels of Autonomous Driving

Autonomous driving has the potential to improve traffic flow, reduce commuter stress and free up people to pursue other productive activities. But, its benefits are only realized if the technology operates error-free.


To achieve this, sensors such as radar and high-powered cameras scan the vehicle environment in real-time. Software then processes this information, plots a path and sends instructions to actuators that control acceleration, braking and steering.

Level 1

Currently, most cars with driver assist technologies are at level 2. These systems enable the human to take their hands off the wheel, but still require that they monit 방문운전연수 or driving conditions. Examples of this include Tesla’s Autopilot, which keeps the car within its lane and maintains a safe distance from vehicles in front of it, and Nissan’s ProPilot, which is capable of steering the vehicle through a traffic jam. These systems aren’t able to take over control in complex traffic situations, so the driver must be fully alert and ready to intervene when necessary.

Level 3 takes things up a notch with the addition of artificial intelligence, which allows the system to gauge driving conditions more thoroughly. This is why Audi (Volkswagen) killed their Traffic Jam Pilot feature in the new A8, which would have upgraded it to level 3.

At this point, the car is capable of controlling acceleration, braking and steering, but only under certain circumstances. The driver must be alert at all times and ready to intervene when prompted by the system, but they can use the time spent in the vehicle to watch a movie or listen to music.

At level 4, the system can drive the car in all conditions without the need for a human driver. This is where we’re all going, and it’s the goal that companies like Googl 방문운전연수 e are working towards, leapfrogging traditional car manufacturers’ efforts.

Level 2

At level 2, systems can handle acceleration, braking and steering. This is the highest rung of partial driving automation systems that are currently available. You will still need to keep your hands on the wheel and be alert to road conditions. However, the system will assist you with multiple aspects of driving at once, such as maintaining a safe distance from cars in front of you on a highway or assisting you to navigate and center in your lane. Examples of level 2 driver assistance systems include adaptive cruise control, lane-centering technology and parking assistance.

The newest version of Tesla’s autopilot features is a good example of this, as is Ford BlueCruise, which allows you to take your hands off the wheel while on select highways. However, even at this stage you need to be ready to take over control from the driver if ADAS doesn’t work as intended.

At level 4 we are moving closer to true autonomous vehicles that don’t need a cockpit. These systems are programmed to handle every aspect of driving, including complex city situations like construction zones or sudden changes in traffic flow – but a human can always request control. They can also safely stop themselves if they fail to meet certain stringent safety requirements. It will be a while before we see any vehicles at this level on our roads.

Level 3

This is the next stage of autonomous driving, where the vehicle can handle almost all the tasks involved in a given situation but still requires a human driver to be ready to take over. This is the level where you can kick back and work or watch a movie, although you will have to keep an eye on your speed and the car’s surroundings.

This is where we are today with systems like Tesla’s Autopilot with Full Self-Driving (FSD), BMW’s Traffic Jam Pilot, Audi’s Traffic Assist and GM’s Super Cruise. These all function as advanced highway cruise control systems and can operate hands-free under specific conditions.

At this level, the car uses a range of sensors and data sources to determine how to best operate its own controls. This includes information from radar, GPS, visual cameras and a suite of LiDAR arrays. It also takes into account the current state of other vehicles and the environment, such as weather or road conditions.

Ideally, a Level 3 vehicle will use its environment to make intelligent decisions, such as accelerating past that slow-moving lane hog when it sees an opening. However, at this time, most companies are only capable of offering vehicles with Level 2 autonomy – and even that’s still pretty much on the bleeding edge. In order to reach Level 3, we’ll need better sensors, more timely and accurate data, vehicle-to-vehicle connections and off-site call centers for dealing with uncommon risks.

Level 4

At this level, the driver disengages from a vehicle’s control functions but must be ready to take back responsibility for the car at any time. Drivers of cars that operate at this level are alerted if their vehicle encounters conditions that it cannot handle, such as driving on a highway in rain or snow. If the driver fails to reassert control within 10 seconds, the vehicle will automatically pull over and stop moving.

Currently, the only Level 3 systems on the market are those found in Tesla Model S vehicles. Known as Autopilot, the system operates at highway speeds and is limited to acceleration, braking and lane centering. While the feature has received a lot of attention since an accident in which a Florida driver died while using Autopilot, it does not constitute full hands-off autonomous driving.

The next step up is Level 4 autonomy, which does not require the presence of a human driver. But to get there, a lot needs to align: solving safety puzzles, developing geofencing infrastructure and pushing toward Net Zero emissions. This is going to be a long journey. But if all the stars align, we will see fully autonomous vehicles on the road in the near future.